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It’s not a secret that there’s a housing shortage in this country. On Thursday, the National Association of Realtors said in a report on metro housing that the lack of homes for sale made homeownership even less affordable in the final quarter of 2021. The median home price went up to $361,700, nearly a 15% annual increase. Prices were up even more in coastal cities like San Francisco and Portland, Oregon.

What can be done? Jenny Schuetz, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, considers some possibilities in her book, “Fixer Upper: How to Repair America’s Broken Housing System.” Schuetz spoke with “Marketplace” host Amy Scott about possible solutions. The following is a transcript of their conversation.